TRINPsite, 56.21.4-56.21.6 



The exclusive attitude towards a quality or thing may be an anti-attitude or a pro-attitude. In the former case a low, or negative, value is assigned to an object of exclusion; in the latter case a high, or positive, value is assigned to an object of exclusivity. This may be done consciously and explicitly, or unconsciously and implicitly. Of course, it is not necessarily the case that assigning a low value to something, or having an anti-attitude, is in itself exclusivistic. Such would even make it impossible to have an anti-attitude towards exclusivism. It follows from the adherence to a normative doctrine that one assigns values and develops an anti-attitude towards one thing and a pro-attitude towards another, like the doctrine itself, its norms and the ideals associated with these norms. Whether such an anti-attitude and such a pro-attitude are exclusivistic depends on the doctrine, its norms and its ideals.

Now, an exclusivism is aggrandizemental if a high(er) value is assigned to a certain class or characteristic quality, and abnegational if a low(er) value is assigned to that class or quality. In other words, in the case of aggrandizemental exism an object is regarded, felt or treated as superior, possibly even by giving or allowing it an exclusive position in the physical sense; in the case of abnegational exism it is regarded, felt or treated as inferior, possibly even by excluding or by not admitting it in the physical sense. (That there is no justification for these judgments, feelings and treatments is already implied in their being exclusivistic.) A form of aggrandizemental exclusivism with an own name in traditional language is favoritism. Dependent on its definition the term favoritism is only used when the exclusivism is shown in practise, and when the object of exclusivity is a person or group of persons. The antithetical facet of inclusivity is neither expressive of aggrandizement, nor of abnegation, but neutral in this respect. Inclusivity, that is, neutral-inclusivity, is therefore always flanked by these two sides of exclusivism. This level on which exclusivist aggrandizement and exclusivist abnegation together lay stress on the neutrality of inclusiveness will be termed "evaluative".

The evaluative distinction is only one of (at least) three ways to subdivide an integral exism, or (if present) a dimensional manifestation of such an exism. A second distinction is the 'agent-relative' one between internal and external exisms. An internal exclusivism is an exclusivism held by someone who has 'imself the characteristic which is the object of the exism, or who belongs to the exclusive or excluded class 'imself, whereas an external exclusivism is an exism held by someone who does not have that characteristic, or who does not belong to that class 'imself. Internal is not the same as self-regarding; only the combination of internal and aggrandizemental is (granted that the class to which someone belongs is part of the 'self'). An exism can be both internal and abnegational, that is, self-abnegational. An example is a person who speaks a dialect and feels inferior in respect of someone speaking an official variant of the same language, because 'e believes that speaking a dialect would be something inferior. The expression other-regarding might refer to an external, aggrandizemental exism, but it seems to be used too for an attitude or practise which is neither abnegational nor aggrandizemental towards others, that is, a nonexclusivist one in this respect. In the latter sense it could not be called "other-regarding", for instance, to believe that one or more official state functions ought to be reserved for members of a certain family to which the 'believer' does not belong 'imself. All the same, such an exclusivist belief is both external and aggrandizemental. Neutral-inclusivity, however, is not only not aggrandizemental or abnegational, it is not (exclusively) internal or (exclusively) external either. The norm of inclusivity prescribes the inclusion of other classes than the ones to which one belongs oneself, and of other persons on equal terms with one's own class, characteristics and person, and vice versa. (This is the inclusivistic alternative for the agapist love thy neighbour as thyself.)

Besides the evaluative and agent-relative aspects of exclusivism there is a third important distinction, namely between those exisms which are of the active type and those which are of the sentimental type. This distinction will be termed "symptomatic". An exclusivism is active if it is actively expressed, that is, if it involves the implications of the exclusivist attitude or action for the object which is excluded or (made) exclusive; it is sentimental if it involves exclusive sentiments and tendencies, or the implications for the subject who holds the exclusivism 'imself. (The reason that it is not called "passive" here, is that a person who is the 'passive' object of an active exism need not be the subject of such a 'sentimental' exism 'imself.) Active exclusivisms refer particularly to the conative aspect of attitudes and to actions, whereas sentimental exclusivisms refer particularly to the cognitive and affective aspects. It has to be borne in mind tho, that when an exclusivist idea or cognition is actively expressed the speech act itself is an action, and the exclusivism active, if, and insofar as, the implications for the object are concerned. For the basic distinction is not between elements of one and the same attitude, but between the particular implications it has for the object on the one hand, and for the subject itself on the other.

By combining the evaluative, agent-relative and symptomatic aspects, we arrive conceptually at nine components of an integral or dimensional exclusivism. However, de facto the external abnegational component of an exism is equal to the internal aggrandizemental component of the exism which is its 'complement'. By complement is, then, to be understood the set of all classes or characteristics other than the one excluded or made exclusive, but belonging to the same field. Thus the external aggrandizemental component also equals the internal abnegational component of the exclusivism's complement. The external components of exclusivism need therefore not be dealt with separately in the present classification system. External abnegational female exism (such as the belief in the inferiority of girls or women by boys or men), for instance, is de facto the same as internal aggrandizemental or self-aggrandizemental male exism (the belief in the superiority of males by males), and external aggrandizemental male exism (the belief in the superiority of males by females) the same as self-abnegational female exism (the belief in the inferiority of females by females). Not only are female and male exism themselves antithetical to gender-neutral inclusivity, but also all their componential manifestations.

Components like aggrandizemental exism which are distinguished on the basis of only one criterion (such as the evaluative one) will be termed "elemental" here, and components like self-aggrandizemental exism which are distinguished on the basis of two or three criterions "compound". In the names we shall use for these compound components self- stands for internal, aggrandizing for aggrandizemental (and) active and abnegating for abnegational (and) active. Figure F. shows the classificatory cladogram of componential manifestations with their binary-decimal numbers. It depends on the integral exclusivism in question which manifestations do occur and are, or were, most common, and should therefore be actually mentioned separately, whether elemental or compound. If they are mentioned, it is roughly in the following forms of behavior and states of mind that human componential exclusivisms are expressed:

  1. aggrandizing-exclusivism (comp.4):
    • commandment or prescription of a certain characteristic quality (rated positive in a normative sense on other than relevant grounds)
    • exclusive involvement, contact with and/or preferential treatment of something/someone/people belonging to a certain class or with a certain quality (rated positive on other than relevant grounds)
  2. sentimental aggrandizemental exclusivism (comp.5):
    • exclusive respect for, or worship or idolatry of something/someone/people belonging to a certain class
    • obsession or sentimental preoccupation with a certain characteristic quality (rated positive);
      if internal (that is, sentimental self-aggrandizemental) (comp.10) also:
    • arrogance or (aggrandizemental) self-consciousness (regarding one or more of one's own qualities rated positive)
  3. abnegating exclusivism (comp.6):
    • prohibition, restriction, condemnation or (complete) disregard for a certain characteristic quality (rated negative in a normative sense on other than relevant grounds)
    • exclusion of something/someone/people belonging to a certain class or with a certain characteristic (rated negative) from equality, that is, stigmatization and/or abnegational discrimination of certain classes or characteristics
  4. sentimental abnegational exclusivism (comp.7):
    • hatred, irrational fear or distrust of, uneasiness with, or alienation from something/someone/people belonging to a certain class (rated negative on other than relevant grounds)
    • nausea, phobia, discomfort, inhibition or ignorance with respect to a certain characteristic (rated negative);
      if internal (that is, sentimental self-abnegational) (comp.14) also:
    • shame, shyness or (abnegational) self-consciousness (regarding one's own characteristic(s) rated negative).

©MVVM, 41-67 ASWW

Model of Neutral-Inclusivity
Book of Fundamentals
The Manifestations of Exclusivism
How to Survey a Morass of Irrelevance