P o e m
- The established lordship of the Cross & Crescent
- is as steady as a rock.
- But ...
- There is stone-breaking saxifrage,
- the flower that splits the rock
- that splits the human race.
- Its roots,
- so wee and weak and yet so strong,
- crack the crevices of the exclusive creeds.
- The pastoral fortress of the faithful in power
- is as still as a stone.
- But ...
- There is sweetbarkèd sassafras,
- the tree that grows in the ideal
- that grows in real, unsevered siblinghood.
- Its leaves,
- so unalike and yet so similar,
- unite humanity in the inclusive Norm.
- The hard core of the clay that holds sway by law
- cleaves to the supernal potter's brand of belief.
- But ...
- There are the stone-breaking and the sweetbarkèd,
- the ones that never waived their right
- to come together on common ground,
- to meet and be met in that noble Name.
- The frigid rigid rock is split,
- the crumbling blackened brick broken,
- the battered bulwark cloven open;
- the buds of the new life burst.
- And at break of dawn
- there appear in natural light
- the several leaves of the laureled Saxifrax.
Vinsent Nandi, 47.SML-48.NMY
S o n g
Saxifrax can also be sung. Its lyric quality will be enhanced
by repeating the last three lines of each stanza together at the
end of the stanza, and in addition the very last line of the
poem (so that this line is sung three times).
T h e m e
The general theme is the eventual victory of inclusive thought
over exclusivism. The poem concentrates on the evil of state
religionism (that is, official political exclusivism on the
basis of religion), especially in the numerous countries where
the authorities make common cause with, promote or abuse one of
the major theocentrist ideologies in the world.
S e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s
The present dictionary meaning of saxifrax is
simply sassafras, nothing less, nothing more. However,
etymologically it is a modification of sasafras under the influence
of saxifraga, the term for breakstone. In this poem the name
Saxifrax combines the symbolism of the 'stone-breaking'
saxifrage, representing the fight against exclusivism, with that
of the 'sweetbarked' sassafras, representing the attitude and
doctrine of inclusiveness itself.
the established lordship (l.1)
Literally lordship refers to the authority or
power of a lord, to dominion. But Lord is also a significant name
for the supreme being in what is or used to be the most powerful
religion in the world. In the countries in which this religion
is the state ideology its political hegemony is therefore a form
of 'lordship' in more than one sense. Moreover, this usurpative
dominion which turns people with different convictions into
second-rate citizens or even non-citizens is a 'lordly' one:
arrogant and haughty.
The lordship is also 'established' in more than one
sense. Firstly, the lords (and, perhaps, ladies) in a system of
state-religionism are or belong to the Establishment, the powerful
people who control the important organizations and public life
in their country. Their lordship is established authority.
Secondly, the particular religion in question may itself be
established in that it is made into the state religion,
regardless of the existence of other theocentrist creeds and
regardless of other persons' belief in the primacy of norms and
the Cross and (the) Crescent (l.1)
These two symbols belong to the present major religions
in the world, which are to a greater or lesser degree the more or
less official state ideologies of many exclusivist countries.
as steady as a rock (l.2)
There is an implicit connection between the rock and
lordship (mentioned in line 1), for one of the several holy
books of 'the people of the book' says, "the Lord is my rock".
On the face of it lordship, establishment and dictatorship are,
certainly in their heyday, 'as steady as a rock', that is, so
steady that those in power will not shake or tremble. Yet, do
rocks really always remain steady?
but (l.3, l.12 and l.21)
This word introduces no as the answer to the
question above. It is a clear and loud no that strikes one as a
butt. (Note the fortis |T| at the end of but(t)!)
When singing Saxifrax this word should be said rather than
there is stone-breaking saxifrage (l.4)
The term saxifrage derives from saxifraga
(herba), which means rock-breaking (herb). It refers to
breakstone and various plants resembling it. Saxifrage grows in the
crevices of rocks and stony places. As a stone is in its natural form a
piece of rock, stone-breaking may be considered a synonym of
rock-breaking. The former word is used because of its clear
verbal connection with 'breakstone' (and because of its aural
effects in combination with saxifrage and sweetbarked).
the flower that splits the rock (l.5)
Breakstone is a saxifragous plant: it splits and
furthers the splitting of rocks or stones. On the surface level of
interpretation this is the meaning of the present line. On a
deeper level, however, the rock is established lordship or the
lordship of the religious establishment of lines 1-2. The
'flower' must therefore be something like a new attitude,
movement or doctrine that causes or helps to cause the downfall
of that lordship, of the exclusivist use of the state for
religious purposes and propaganda. Saxifrage is now promoted to
a symbol of the new attitude and of the desire to be delivered
from the evil represented by the rock in this poem.
the rock that splits the human race (ll.5-6)
In this context rock is definitely used in the
figurative sense of the whole system of religionist dominion. It is a
system that tears humanity apart. It is responsible for a
denominational cleavage in society: the people of a particular
variety of the Cross are distinguished or even separated from
all others, the people of a particular variety of the Crescent
from all others, 'the people of the book' (those of the Crescent
and their predecessors) from all others, and so on and so forth.
Throughout history, and still today all over the world, we see
how religious exclusivism is the sole or main cause of bloody
civil and international wars. And war is the ultimate way of
splitting the human race.
its roots, so wee and weak and yet so strong (ll.7-8)
On the surface level of interpretation the 'roots'
are simply those of the saxifrage, which exert their
physical-biological strength to break the stone, even
they are very small ('wee') and weak.
On a deeper level the 'roots' are grass roots:
the ordinary people who are not in power. Individually each of them is
powerless, too weak to fight an unjust system on 'er own. And
yet all these ordinary, almost powerless people together are so
strong that they can make such a system collapse, if they want
to and have the courage. As the roots are those of the
saxifrage, the ordinary people are persons who participate in
the anti-exclusivist movement.
the crevices of the exclusive creeds (l.9)
The creeds are, of course, the religions that abuse
the state for religious purposes or that have themselves abused by
the state for political purposes. They are exclusive in that
they play the role of a state ideology; and they are exclusivist
in that they exclude nonreligious citizens and citizens of a
different religion from equal treatment in the practical and
symbolic affairs of the state. They are usually also exclusivist
in countless other respects in that they discriminate against or
between people and their backgrounds on the basis of factors
such as region of the world where they live or come from,
descent, language, age, gender, sexuality, marital status and
personal or family wealth. The separate parts into which these
creeds irrelevantly divide the world and humanity are already to
be found as divisions or 'crevices' in their own traditions and
doctrinal bodies. The weaknesses which go with these divisions
are serious moral ones.
the pastoral fortress (l.10)
Those who have appropriated exclusive power
illegitimately are forced to withdraw to a place strengthened for
defense, that is, a fortress. At the same time they may dislike too much
emphasis on their defensive position. The emphasis should rather
be on the peace which accompanies law and order. When this peace
is taken for granted and respected most sheepishly by all
subjects, the setting of the fortress becomes wholly pastoral.
The fortress is also implicitly connected with the
rock of line 2, because in the fiction of the Cross 'the Lord is' not
only 'my rock' but also 'my fortress'. And so the fortress is
once more 'pastoral' in that it concerns religious groups and
organizations of which the leaders look upon themselves as shepherds
and upon the led as sheep of a flock to be kept in a fold.
the faithful in power (l.10)
Literally this means those who believe strongly in
their faith(s) and who are in power.
Normists have faith in the
primacy of norms and values and in those norms and values
themselves (such as the principle of relevance or the norm of
inclusivity), but theocentrists usually equate faith with
religious belief or religion. The 'faithful' are
then those believing strongly in religion. At the moment they are,
indeed, in power in religionist countries.
There is the additional consideration that 'the
faithful in power' may be 'full of their faith in power' or even 'in
the all-powerful' or 'Almighty'. Faith in power is a perversion in
which power is enjoyed for its own sake. And so is faith in an
all-powerful Supreme Being, which elevates power to something
'supreme' or perfect in itself.
as still as a stone (l.11)
This line has the same meaning as line 2. The parallel
occurrence of rock and stone indicates, again, that the two
concepts are used interchangeably.
there is sweet-barked sassafras (l.13)
The peculiar thing about the sassafras is that it has
leaves of widely divergent shapes which grow on one and the same tree
or shrub. It 'includes', as it were, all these different forms
of being. That its bark is 'sweet' relates it in a verbal way to
the 'sweet', that is, gentle and lovable character of those who
do not live by or support exclusion and exclusiveness.
The sweet bark of the sassafras contrasts clearly
with the saxifragous nature of breakstone.
the tree that grows in the ideal (l.14)
Sassafras is not a tree which grows on a bare rock.
It needs soil; a fertile soil would be ideal.
Whereas a biological interpretation could go no
further than the question of the right natural conditions, the ideal
turns out to be inclusiveness on a deeper level. It is in this
ideal that sassafras starts to grow as a symbol.
Sassafras as a symbol of inclusivism must be
distinguished from saxifrage as a symbol of anti-exclusivism.
Inclusivism is good in itself, anti-exclusivism is a necessary evil to
overcome exclusivist attitudes, actions,
the ideal that grows in real, unsevered siblinghood (ll.14-15)
In contexts where people are involved brotherhoods and
sisterhoods (as so often found in religious cultures) are
institutions based on sexual exclusivism or irrelevantism. For
outside the fields of sexuality and procreation only real
siblinghood is true community. Such siblinghood is unsevered
siblinghood: one in which human beings, let alone persons as
persons, are not separated into brothers and sisters, males and
females. The ideal of inclusiveness cannot flourish where
irrelevant sexual distinctions are not transcended.
its leaves, so unalike and yet so similar (ll.16-17)
The leaves of the sassafras are unalike in that they
have different shapes and forked patterns of veins. Nonetheless, they
do not differ from one another in a completely arbitrary way.
One can recognize a 'system' in these differences: sassafras
leaves are ovate entire ('zero-lobed'), one-lobed, two-lobed or
three-lobed. In this respect all the leaves are similar after
the inclusive Norm (l.18)
This phrase is the counterpart of exclusive creeds
in line 9. Whereas creeds is plural to refer to the multitude of
exclusivist ideologies, Norm is singular to refer to one
undivided inclusivistic doctrine. Being based on the primacy of
norms and values, rather than on that of one or more gods and/or
demons, this doctrine is called "the Norm". The adherents of the
inclusive Norm, like humanity in general, vary like sassafras
leaves and yet they are united and the same in their respect for
'the inclusive norm' (that is, the norm of inclusivity).
Conversely, all people are united and the same in their being
respected as equals on the basis of this norm.
the clay (l.19) and the supernal potter (l.20)
An important tenet of creationist supernaturalism is:
"we are the clay, and thou our potter; and we all are the work of
the hard core . . . that holds sway by law (l.19)
Clay may be relatively soft, and it may be less soft.
Creationists and other supernaturalists who impose their belief
on the whole of society are made of harder clay. The most
callous among them constitute the hard core that, in the past,
has managed to steal the state and rule the country legally.
cleaves to (l.20)
No doubt, the self-righteous who consider their regime
as steady as a rock have a firm enough belief in the Lordship that
is their own lordship. By remaining loyal to their faith they
cleave to it. At the same time this faith cleaves society
and humanity with laws and state symbols that flout the
denominational principles and preferences of minorities or,
quite possibly, the majority.
brand of belief (l.20)
There is inclusivistic-normistic and there is
exclusivist-theocentrist belief, but in countries in which the 'supernal
potter's' faith, that is, a form of creationist supernaturalism,
is the state ideology the official and special type (or 'brand')
of belief is definitely exclusivist and theocentrist.
Brand does not only have the meaning of type
or kind; it has the meaning of sword too. The picture which
emerges with this interpretation is one of militant believers who remain
loyal to their sword of faith, to their use of force or coercion
as sanctioned by their belief. This is a very unpleasant image
indeed when we think of all those human beings who have been put
to the sword because they did not fit the killers' or their
leaders' exclusionist ideology. How fresh is the blood which is
still being sacrificed to the flaming sword of religious faith
their right (l.23)
Even tho the Establishment (or a majority in a democracy)
has the power to make and pass any kind of law, it has as little
power to change morality as to change the laws of physics. The
hard core of religionists may appeal to the law, or to law and
order, but there is always the appeal to morality, to
legitimacy and order, and to people's moral instead of
legal rights. Those who do not want to associate themselves with a
religion or do not want to be associated with a religion have
not willingly given up their moral right to be treated as equals
by the state and by other citizens.
to come together on their common ground (l.24)
The surface interpretation of this phrase is that,
because of the saxifragous breaking of the rock, a fertile soil is
created for the sassafras to grow on, together with saxifrage.
This is, perhaps, not very plausible, for the botanical details
may not be correct.
What really counts, however, is the deeper level of
interpretation where anti-exclusivists break new ground and pave the
way for a change towards inclusiveness. Even if they do not have
the legal right to meet one another freely, they have the moral
right to come together at any place which they morally own or
co-own. The siblings of the inclusive Norm have the same moral
rights of personhood as other citizens, religionist, capitalist
or communist laws notwithstanding.
that noble Name (l.25)
Biologically the noble name is saxifrax, the name
that combines the words saxifrage and sassafras.
Denominationally the noble Name is first and foremost (the) Norm,
for it is under this
denomination that persons
who believe in the primacy of norms and values, and who are loyal to, among
others, the norm of inclusivity, meet.
The specific symbols of anti-exclusivism
and inclusivism which play such an important role in
this poem blend together in the name Saxifrax.
Altho the word noble is traditionally opposed to
the word common occurring in the previous line, the two terms do not
stand for any social cleavage here. The relevant distinction is
rather one between the knowing on the one hand and the ignorant
on the other. Anyone who has good and sufficient denominational
knowledge is 'noble' in the etymologically justifiable sense of
the word. Noble is the person who has seen and recognized the
leaves of the Tree of Knowledge.
the frigid rigid rock is split (l.26)
Saxifrage splits rocks and rocks break apart faster
under frosty conditions. Analogously, anti-exclusivist thought and
action will especially shake up an exclusivist system when such
a system is cold in manner. And even when not lacking in life,
it is so in flexibility.
Unfriendly to the ones left out or kept under, rigid
exclusivist systems are not seldom 'frigid' too in that they
have or purport to have a dislike for human sexuality. This
sexual frigidity may be reflected in a moral code which, while
usually being sexist, hardly reaches beyond the limits of a
miserotic micromorality. In religionist countries such a code is
or used to be foisted on the whole of society, even tho the
wholeness of society lies in a balanced acceptance of male and
female sexuality and not in a dogmatic confinement, let alone
rejection of it.
the crumbling blackened brick (l.27)
The brick is blackened because it has been there from
a time beyond anyone's memory and never, or only inadequately, cleaned
up. It is crumbling because it consists of fragments which do
not cohere very well under contemporary conditions. The visual
imagery of the blackened brick is similar to that of the rigid
rock in the previous line; the visual imagery of the crumbling
brick to that of the battered bulwark in the next.
the battered bulwark (l.28)
The strong walls built for 'the protection of the
faith', that is, against the faith(s) of others, are made to collapse,
so that the state and country is opened up to its own citizens,
including those who refuse to embrace any god or demon, and who
are appalled by the lies of supernaturalist and the irrelevances
of exclusivist ideology. The 'bulwark' is not only breaking down
because of severe attacks from the outside tho: it was already
being battered by its own internal inconsistencies and
anomalies, and by its own abominable historical record.
This is a key word of inclusive thought. (In figurative
usage open is related to inclusive, whereas its antonym
closed is related to exclusive and exclusivist.)
the buds of the new life (l.29)
A 'bud' consists of young tightly rolled up foliage
and/or floral leaves. The word may further refer to an initial phase or
development of something, such as the beginning of life or new
life. In this poem the new life is, of course, a life free from
discrimination, harassment and the imposition of exclusivist
symbols, at any place in the world.
This conjunction supersedes the buts of the first
three stanzas and is in striking contrast to them. The contrast is
strengthened by the use of bud in the previous line. The lenis
|D| of bud clearly differentiates it from but with its
break of dawn (l.30)
Dawn is the beginning of a new day, and it is the
beginning of a new civilization as defined by its denominational views
and ideals. For the break of day or 'break of dawn' to arrive,
however, the ancient system may first have to break down or to
be broken down.
(It goes without saying that change and destruction are
not good in themselves. The change or destruction of a political,
social or other system is necessary if and when it transgresses
and continues to transgress against people's personal rights,
but this should be done to improve such a system or to replace
it with a better one.)
At dawn daylight, that is, natural light, begins to
appear. But natural is not only opposed to artificial; more
importantly, natural (whether referring to things artificial
or not) is opposed to supernatural. In the new era obscurantism
and supernaturalism have given way, if not to the reasoned
expression of truth, then to the silence of cognitive humility.
Here this word is an adjective meaning various
the laureled Saxifrax (l.32)
Saxifrax is sassafras, a tree or shrub which is
'laureled' in that it belongs to the laurel family.
Saxifrax is the combined symbol of anti-exclusivism
and inclusivism as well, and 'laureled' in that is awarded a token
of victory, or even made into one. It is significant that, in
the end, it is not a person, human being or god that receives
special recognition but a value. For the victory is no other
than the one of inclusiveness over exclusivity and exclusion.
A u r a l a n a l y s i s
THE e-STA-blished LORD-ship OF the CROSS 'n CRE-scent
^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^
*IS as* STEA-dy *AS* a ROCK.
^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^^^
*THERE is* STONE-brea-king SA|K-s|i-frage,
^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^
the FLOW-er *that SPLITS the* ROCK
<<<<<<<<<<< *that SPLITS the* HU-man RACE.
*so* WEE *and* WEAK *and YET so* STRONG,
^^^ ^^^ ^ ^
CRACK the CRE-vi-ces of THE e|k-S|CLU-sive CREEDS.
^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^
the PAS-t'ral FOR-tress OF the FAITH-ful in POW-er
^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^
*IS as* STILL *AS* a STONE.
^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^
*THERE is* SWEET-bar-ked SA-ssa-FRAS,
^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^
the TREE *that GROWS in* THE i- DEAL
^^^ ^^^^ ^^^
<<<<<<<< *that GROWS in* REAL, un-SE-vered SI-bling-HOOD.
^^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^
*so* UN-a-LIKE *and YET so* SI-mi-lar,
^ ^^ ^ ^^
u-NITE hu-MA-ni-ty in THE in-CLU-sive NORM.
^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^
<< the HARD core OF the CLAY that holds SWAY by LAW
^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^
CLEAVES to THE su-PER-nal PO-tter's BRAND of be-LIEF.
^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^
*THERE* are *the* STONE-BREA-king AND *the* SWEET-BAR-ked,
^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^
*the* |W|ONES that NE-ver WAIVED their RIGHT
^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^
*to* COME to-GE-ther on CO-mmon GROUND,
^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^
*to* MEET and be MET in that NO-ble NAME.
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^
*the* FRI-gid RI-gid ROCK is SPLIT,
^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^
*the* CRUM-bling BLA-ckened BRICK BRO-ken,
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^
*the* BA-ttered BUL-wark CLO-ven O-pen;
^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^
*the* BUDS *of the* NEW life BURST.
^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^
AND at BREAK of DAWN
THERE a-PPEAR in NAT-'ral LIGHT
^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^
*the* SEV-'ral LEAVES
^ ^^^ ^
>>>>>>>>>> *of the* LAU-reled SA|K-s|i-FRA|KS|.
^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^
of symbols see below
In the standard representation of the poem the graves in lines 13 and 22
indicated already that the last e in sweetbarked has to be
pronounced for poetic reasons. (Without further specification this could be
an |i| sound or an |a|, that is, schwa.) Had the e been silent as
usual, sweetbarked would not have been syllabified as
SWEET-BAR-ked (or SWEET-BAR.k.ed) but as
The aural analysis shows capitals where syllables automatically receive
primary or secondary stress. A syllable which is not capitalized receives
some stress nevertheless, if it is immediately preceded by and followed by
another such syllable in the same line. Hence, ces in
(CRE-)vi-ces of and ty in (hu-MA-)ni-ty in are not
completely unstressed. A syllable at the end of the line which is not
capitalized receives stress as well, if it is preceded by five syllables
of which only the third is stressed (thus creating two anapests) or only
the second and fourth (thus creating three iambs). Hence, lar in
and YET so SI-mi-lar receives some stress. These rules are
based on the principle that, in the same line, two primary-stressed
syllables or three unstressed syllables do not follow each other
immediately (and on the opinion that sequences like
STRESS-un-STRESS-un-un-STRESS are too irregular to produce an
acceptable rhythm). From this point of view a spondee (or two syllables
with primary stress in succession) and a tribrach (or three unstressed
syllables in succession) should only be formed when there is a special,
substantive reason for doing so.
In SAXIFRAX there are two exceptions to the metrical rules as
adopted for general purposes. Firstly, line 22 does not end in three iambs,
the last syllable not receiving stress. Because of the pronunciation of the
last e in sweetbarked this word has three syllables, like
stone-breaking, while the primary stress is on the first syllable in
either word. By not stressing ked at the end of the line both words
are patterned as dactyles (ignoring the secondary stresses, which are on
the same, second syllables anyhow). This departure from the metrical rules
in sweetbarked and the parallelism between stone-breaking
and sweetbarked makes these words stand out, and rightly so,
for they refer to the two central images of the poem.
Line 27 contains the second exception to the metrical rules, for stressed
BRICK is immediately followed by the stressed syllable of
BRO-ken. Where one would expect four iambs, as in the previous line,
the fourth iamb is suddenly turned around and becomes a trochee. But, of
course, it occurs precisely where the brick breaks and thus emphasizes in a
metrical way the clash that takes place here.
Metrical patterning is a matter of syllabic and higher-level aural effects,
but aural effects in general start at the level of single sounds. This has
been indicated above by underlining with carets certain letters or pairs of
letters which represent one consonant or vowel (monophthong or diphthong).
The phonemic aural effects referred to now are the result of the repetition
of a sound or group of sounds in the same word, line, sentence, stanza,
canto or poem. It goes without saying that the effect is stronger as the
textual unit is smaller, the group of sounds larger and the repetition more
Examples of phonemic repetitions which result in aural effects are: the
repetition of |ST| in e-STA-blished (l.1) and STEA-dy
(l.2), which is double syllable-initial consonance and alliteration; of
|BA| in BUT and BUDS in all four stanzas, and of |A| only in
BUDS (l.29) and CRUM-bling (l.27), which is assonance only;
of |joo| in u-NITE and hu-MA-ni-ty (l.18), which is the
repetition of an entire word-initial syllable, provided the h in
human(ity) is not pronounced; of |EI| in CLAY and SWAY
(l.19), which is line-internal rime; of |W| in |W|ONES and
WAIVED (l.23), which is alliteration; of |T| in SPLIT (l.26),
BURST (l.29) and LIGHT (l.31), which is word-final consonance
between three stressed monosyllablic words at the end of three lines of the
same stanza; of |ral| in NAT-'ral and SEV-'ral (l.32), which
is the repetition of an entire word-final syllable; of |AK(s)| in
SA|K(-s)| and FRA|KS| (l.32), which is assonance and single
or double syllable-final consonance within the one word saxifrax.
Certain aural effects are the result of parallel structures in the poem.
This is very clear with regard to the repeated use of BUT in the
first three stanzas. It is clear, too, when we compare, for example, the
4th lines in the 1st and 2nd stanzas:
*THERE is* STONE-BREA-king SA|K-s|i-frage
^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^
*THERE is* SWEET-BAR- ked SA- ssa-FRAS
^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^
We find line-internal word-initial consonance between STONE and
SAK and between SWEET and SA, and word-internal
syllable-initial consonance between SAK and si and between
SA and ssa, and word-internal assonance between SA and
FRAS, but except for the last all these phonemic repetitions
can also be found between the two lines, and in addition many
more. For the best effects one may have to choose the most suitable
pronunciational variant, however. Thus, ked should be pronounced
with |i|, and not |a| (schwa), in order to create syllable-initial
consonance and assonance between king and ked,
whereas the medial a in sassafras should be pronounced (as a
schwa) and not be deleted in order to create a complete phonemic identity
between the si of SA|K-s|i-frage and the ssa of
It is obvious that the parallel treatment of 'saxifrage' and 'sassafras'
is part of the symbolism developed in SAXIFRAX, and that this
symbolism is enhanced by phonemic, syllabic and higher-level aural
effects. And yet, such effects do not necessarily create an aural imagery,
or if so, then not necessarily in a proper way. The effect of aural imagery
does not merely lie in the more or less emphatic use or repetition of a
sound but rather in the choice of a particular sound or type of
sound, so that the listener (and even the reader) 'hears', as it were, what
is being described.
Aural imagery is found at several places in the poem. Thus, there is the
repetition of |KR| in CROSS and CRE-scent in the first line
of the first stanza, and in CRACK, CRE-vi-ces and
CREEDS in the last line of the same stanza (l.9). The first of the
phonemes in CR is |K|, which is a plosive or 'stop', that is, an
obstruent formed by creating a complete closure at some point in
the speech track. The fortis plosive |K|, is found in all syllables with
primary stress in line 9 and in the second half of line 1 (not counting the
article and preposition). Line 18, the last line of the second stanza, on
the other hand, is replete with nasals, which are sonorants, consonants
with a relatively free escape of the airstream. The nasals in question are
stressed |N| in u-NITE and NORM, unstressed |n| in
hu-MA-ni-ty, in and in-CLU-sive, and stressed |M| in
hu-MA-ni-ty. Altho the |K| in CLU remains, the prefixes which
differentiate e|k-S|CLU-sive and in-CLU-sive have |k| and |n|
respectively. Between the last lines of the first and second stanzas there
is hardly a repetition of sounds now. And for a reason: by emphasizing the
plosives in the former line, and the nasals in the latter, one begins to
hear the difference between the obstructiveness of 'the exclusive creeds'
and the sonority (so-NO.r.i.t.y!) of 'the inclusive Norm'.
The |K| sound of the last line of the first stanza is repeated in the third
stanza in the |KL| of CLAY (l.19) and CLEAVES (l.20), and in
the |K| of CORE (l.19). (It must be admitted tho that it also occurs
in the COME and CO-mmon of line 24, where it is not part of
the aural imagery.) Furthermore, the |K| sound is repeated in the last
stanza where the |K| or even |KR| returns in CRUM-bling (l.27) and
CLO-ven (l.28). But at many places in lines 27 to 30 it has been
replaced with the |B| sound, another plosive and as such also an
The |N| and |M| sounds of the last line of the second stanza are repeated
in line 25, the last line of the third stanza, as part of the aural imagery
and not so much to create phonemic aural effects. The aural effects of
repetition are primarily found within the lines themselves (in line 25
between MEET and MET and between NOBLE and
NAME). Nonetheless, the resemblance between the very last word of
the second stanza and the very last word of the third stanza is too
remarkable to be coincidental: NORM and NAME. Again, the
structure of the poem, its metrical pattern, and the effects of the
repetition of sounds and of the aural imagery are closely related to its
EXPLANATION OF AURAL ANALYSES
An aural analysis must show at least the division of a text into
syllables, the location of stressed syllables, and the
repetition of syllables or single sounds. For convenience's sake
this is done here while staying as close as possible to ordinary
orthography. Capitals have been made to indicate a syllable
which receives primary or secondary stress in a polysyllabic
word or a monosyllabic word which receives stress in the
sentence. (Where unstressed, an orthographical capital is
replaced with its small-letter counterpart.) Note that aural
effects such as assonance and word-initial or word-final
consonance may depend on dialectal and personal variations in
pronunciation. The variant chosen is meant to have the best
effect, and need not be the most frequently occurring one.|
The meaning of the special symbols is:|
a sound used in the same or an adjacent word, line,
sentence or other structural unit in such a way that its
repetition creates a certain aural effect (assonance if a
vowel, consonance if a consonant)|
a word or group of words repeated in its entirety|
phonemic symbol(s) used to indicate one or two sounds not
represented separately in the standard spelling, such as
|ks| or |gz| for x|
one or two sounds of the strong form or careful pronunciation
which are not to be pronounced, such as deletion of the schwa
or of other sounds in standard contractions|
sharp syllable boundary, possibly after syllabic
disambiguation (see .z.)|
sharp syllable boundary corresponding with a hyphen in the
a syllable overlap with fuzzy boundaries where the choice between onset
disambiguation (-z) or coda disambiguation (z-) does not seem to
a new line with normal margin in the standard presentation|
continuation of the previous line in the standard presentation (in the
aural analysis the words or syllables are arranged in such a way that
the correspondence between sound and/or stress patterns shows better)