|HISTORICAL|| || |
|The classical dialog: "Is the pious beloved by the gods because it is
pious, or pious because beloved by the gods?"
||The pious is beloved by the gods because it is pious
||The pious is pious because it is beloved by the gods|
|More than 2000 years later: "Is something good made or willed
by God because it is good, or is it good because it is
made or willed by God?"
||Something good is made or willed by God or the supreme
because it is good.
Goodness or perfection is in the nature of things
|Something is good because it is made or willed by God.|
What is pleasing to the most powerful is good as such
|The order of nature
|(li, lǐ or
理 is principle or inner principle,
whole of principles of organization or
||The 'li of nature':
all phenomena in the world are part of the Cosmic Way.
There is a harmonious cooperation of all beings that observe
the rules of their own nature
|The 'laws of nature':|
all creatures obey the dictates of a divine lawgiver who has laid
down these laws. Nonpersonal things are said to obey ('His')
|SYSTEMATIC|| || |
|What is essential
||Primacy of the normative:
rules of perfection (goodness, justice, and so on) exist
independently of what a god is/was or does/did:
norms or values are primary, authority is secondary
|Primacy of the (divinely) authoritative:|
(divine) authority comes first and the normative is subsidiary to it:
the divine and authority in general are primary,
norms are secondary
or 'the principle(s)'
or 'the Supreme Being'
|Prime proper name (or 'denomination')
||That of (adherence to) a principle:
'Norm', 'Dao' and other names which
have meaning as a noun
|That of a god:|
'God' and names which do not have meaning
as a noun
|(Non)existence of one or more gods
or a supreme being
(If theistic, attempts to prove the existence of God;
if antitheistic, attempts to prove the
nonexistence of God)
|(Non)existence of one or more independent principles
|To realize what?
||A world of good:
a superior state of being in oneself and/or in other
|A world of God:|
|For the sake of what/whom?
||"For goodness' sake"
||"For God's sake"|
|To praise whom?
||To praise the good/just
||To praise God/the gods|
|Emphasis in teaching
||To live in accordance with a particular principle,
or the principles in general
||To love or worship a particular god,
or the gods in general|
|Way of addressing the adherent
||"We/One should ..."
or "We/One must .."
|"Thou shalt ..."|
||'Legitimacy and order'
||'Law and order'|
|Attitude towards orders and obedience
||"To be convincing is to be obeyed":
|"To hear is to obey":|
"Orders are orders"
|Ethical objection to the other position
||Without a norm/the Norm anything can be commanded
||Without a god/God everything is permitted|
|How to scorn an adherent of the antithetical type of
||By calling 'im "an antinormist" or "an anormist" in a
sense which is not purely descriptive
||By calling 'im "an atheist" in a sense which is not
purely descriptive (and if a theist oneself)