Nonsophistic exclusivisms have no bearing on propositional reality at all; or if they do, the exclusion or exclusivity concerns people who have a special relationship with certain thoughts or systems of thought. But also people are nonpropositional entities and therefore the subdivision of nonsophistic exclusivism is a subdivision of nonpropositional reality itself. That is to say, for the classification of the manifestations of exclusivism we are not going to distinguish between predicates and the things having these predicates. The object of exclusion or exclusivity is conceived of as being the same in both cases. Moreover, in this chapter we will confine ourselves to primary things having primary predicates, at least as far as nonpropositional reality is concerned.

Exclusivism as a belief, attitude or practise pertains to a nonpropositional being with a mental faculty. While one particular person or personified being (the 'self' or 'ego') is the subject of the exism, its object can in principle be anything that somehow relates to the ground-world of the primary domain. A very useful way of distinguishing the kind and extent of nonsophistic exclusivism is, then, to relate it to the species the subject belongs to, or 'er body belongs to. This 'species' does not necessarily have to be the biological species (with or without the pseudobiological name Homo'sapiens in the case of human bodies or persons who have such bodies). It could theoretically be any group of three or more living or nonliving (nonpropositional) things to which the subject belongs 'imself, and of which 'e has a certain image which is of greater significance than any other similar image. (The minimum is 3, if there has to be a subspecific level between the level of the self and that of the species.)

If a species is the object of exclusion or exclusivity, the manifestation concerned is a manifestation of 'specific exclusivism' or 'speciesism' (X.10). (The meaning of specific is here relating to a species.) If the object of the exism is a subclass of the species (but not the subject 'imself), it will be called "a subspecific exclusivism" (X.9). (This subspecific may or may not relate to a taxonomic subspecies.) If the object of the exism is a superclass of the species, that is, a class of which the species itself is a subclass, it will be called "a superspecific exclusivism" (X.11). For the purpose of the present chapter we have assumed that all persons are human beings (without having assumed the reverse). It therefore accords with this assumption to read "human" or "anthropic" for "specific", "subanthropic" for "subspecific" and "superanthropic" for "superspecific". The facets of inclusivity antithetical to superanthropic and anthropic exism have the same name: superanthropic inclusivity (N.10 & 11). The name of the facet antithetical to subanthropic exism is anthropic inclusivity (N.9).

At least three types of manifestations of superanthropic exclusivism can be x-ed, namely spatiotemporal, biotic and mental ones. Mental superanthropic exclusivism (X.47) is exism re the superanthropic class of conscious beings, or re the mental or 'the mind' in a superspecific sense. It is merely mentioned here because of its existential aggrandizemental operation which involves, or is nothing else than, superspecific (epistemological) idealism (X.47.02.13). This is the belief that the nature of reality would exclusively lie in (a superspecific type of) consciousness. Idealism may also be of an anthropic or lower order. The 'opposite' of idealism, materialism, which teaches that reality is exclusively spatiotemporal, concrete or material, may be conceived of as existential aggrandizemental spatiotemporal exclusivism (X.45.02.13).

Spatiotemporal exclusivism(X.45) is exism re a superanthropic class of spatiotemporal or concrete beings. The unitary manifestation of spatiotemporal exclusivism does not only comprise materialism as the antithesis of idealism, but also an exclusive or disproportionate attention for, or preoccupation with, material things and relations. A historically important manifestation of compositional spatiotemporal exism is geocentrism or aggrandizemental Earth-centered exclusivism (X.11705.02). Geocentrism takes Earth, that is, the planet inhabited by the human species, as the exclusive center of perspective and valuation. Thus geocentrists even used to believe (or religious inquisitors forced them to 'believe') that the Sun would revolve around the Earth, while the Earth would be at rest. A principal operation of geocentrism is the belief that one or more gods and/or demons or its/their incarnation(s) can only be found on Earth or in the atmosphere enveloping it, and nowhere else in the universe. But principal Earth-centered exism can be abnegational too, for example, when it is professed that the supreme being is a god that can (usually) not be found on Earth, or in the atmosphere enveloping it, but that dwells in a 'heaven' far above and away from this earth.

Heliocentrism is aggrandizemental Sun-centered exclusivism (X.2927.02) and also a manifestation of spatiotemporal superanthropic exism. In heliocentrism the Sun is an exclusive center of perspective, because it is taken as the center of the whole universe, for instance, or of another system extending beyond the superanthropic Solar System. The belief in a sun-god, which is or has been part of various religions, is a form of supreme (or perhaps, nonsupreme divine) heliocentrism.

In addition to mental and spatiotemporal superspeciesism biotic exclusivism (X.46) has been mentioned as a type of superanthropic exclusivism. This is exism re a superanthropic class of living beings, or re life itself, that is, life versus nonlife, or the biotic versus the nonbiotic. When life itself is the object of exclusion or exclusivity, the class of living beings is universal, and the biotic exism unitary instead of compositional. If aggrandizemental, this life-centered exclusivism (X.46.02) is a form of exclusivism in which life in itself is conceived of and/or treated as superior to nonlife. Living beings would thus merely as living beings have a higher, ultimate value than nonliving beings; or nonliving beings would, unlike living beings, have no (intrinsic) value at all. The facet of inclusivity antithetical to this manifestation of superanthropic exclusivism is 'suprabiotic' or 'life-transcending inclusivity" (N.46). Our suprabiotic, supranthropic inclusivism entails that we shall not embrace any separate, independent 'principle of life' with 'life' as an ultimate value. What the implications of this position are, and what they are not, will be discussed in the chapter Life and Nonlife.

A narrower version of superspeciesism than life-centered exism is animal-centered exclusivism (X.93.0); animalism is a manifestation of it. As a cognition animalism is the belief that a god or demon must necessarily have, and does exclusively have, animal (including human) characteristics, altho they may gradually exceed normal, natural power, size and/or intensity. Moreover, one god or demon may combine the characteristics of different human and nonhuman species. However, if every god is portrayed as a human-like being and every demon as a (partially) nonhuman animal being, for instance, then this is not superspeciesism but a manifestation of self-aggrandizemental speciesism.

©MVVM, 41-67 ASWW

Model of Neutral-Inclusivity
Book of Fundamentals
The Manifestations of Exclusivism
Exclusivistic But Not Subanthropic